Brief History of Burma

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The ethnic nationalities within the territory known today as the Union of Burma had been living independently before the ethnic Burmans and British colonized them. In order to gain speedy independence from the British colonial administration and to establish a union based on equality, leaders of the Shan, Kachin, and Chin peoples signed the Panglong Agreement with Burman leader Aung San on February 12, 1947. Burma became an independent nation on January 4, 1948. However, the successive oppressive and military regimes of Burma broke the Panglong Agreement and ruled the country against the will of the ethnic nationalities. Therefore, the ethnic nationalities took up arms against the regimes for over 60 years in order to form a genuine federal union of Burma based on self-determination, equality, and democracy.

State

StateCapitalPopulationArea
Total143,649.8 mi²
Arakan (Rakhine)Sittwe3,188,96314,200 mi²
ChinHakha478,69013,907 mi²
KachinMyitkyina1,689,65434,379 mi²
Karen (Kayin)Hpa-An1,572,65711,731 mi²
Karenni (Kayah)Loikaw286,7384,530 mi²
MonMawlamyine2,050,2824,747.8 mi²
ShanTaunggyi5,815,38460,155 mi²

Division

DivisionCapitalPopulationArea
TOTAL AREA117,577.15 mi²
Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady)Bassein (Pathein)6,175,123 13,566 mi²
Pegu (Bago)Pegu (Bago)4,863,45515,214 mi²
MagwayMagway3,912,711 17,305 mi²
MandalayMandalay6,145,58814,295 mi²
SagaingSagaing5,320,29936,535 mi²
TanintharyiDawei1,406,43416,735 mi²
Rangoon (Yangon)Rangoon (Yangon)7,355,0753,927 mi²
*Nay Pyi Taw 1,158,367

Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives) and Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities)

STATES/DIVISIONSPYITHU HLUTTAWAMYOTHA HLUTTAWTOTAL
TOTAL440224664
Arakan (Rakhine)171229
Chin91221
Kachin181230
Karen (Kayin)71219
Karenni (Kayah)71219
Mon101222
Shan551267
Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady)261238
Mandalay361248
Magway251237
Pegu (Bago)281240
Rangoon (Yangon)451257
Sagaing371249
Tanintharyi101222
States/Divisions Total330168498
Military Representatives11056166

Sources:
1) Union Election Commission.
2) Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008).

The constitution appoints 25% of parliamentary seats to military representatives, nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services. (Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008). Ch. VI, Art. 109 and 141.)

Constitutional amendment requires the approval of more than 75% of all members of parliament. (Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008). Ch. XII, Art. 436.)

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