Brief History of Burma

The ethnic nationalities within the territory known today as the Union of Burma had been living independently before the ethnic Burmans and British colonized them. In order to gain speedy independence from the British colonial administration and to establish a union based on equality, leaders of the Shan, Kachin, and Chin peoples signed the Panglong Agreement with Burman leader Aung San on February 12, 1947. Burma became an independent nation on January 4, 1948. However, the successive oppressive and military regimes of Burma broke the Panglong Agreement and ruled the country against the will of the ethnic nationalities. Therefore, the ethnic nationalities took up arms against the regimes for over 60 years in order to form a genuine federal union of Burma based on self-determination, equality, and democracy.


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Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives) and Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities)

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1) Union Election Commission.
2) Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008).

The constitution appoints 25% of parliamentary seats to military representatives, nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services. (Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008). Ch. VI, Art. 109 and 141.)

Constitutional amendment requires the approval of more than 75% of all members of parliament. (Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008). Ch. XII, Art. 436.)